|1922, Departure of Mehmed VI who was the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire|
The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in 1299. With the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453, the Ottoman state was transformed into an empire.
The conquest of Constantinople was a pivotal event in the evolution of Turkish statehood, since the victory of 1453 cemented its Eurasian nature, which remains one of the essential characteristics of Modern Turkey. The empire reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. The reign of the long-lived Ottoman dynasty lasted for 623 years, from 27 July 1299[dn 2] to 1 November 1922, when the monarchy in Turkey was abolished.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful states in the world – a multinational, multilingual empire that stretched from the southern borders of the Holy Roman Empire on the outskirts of Vienna, Royal Hungary (modern Slovakia) and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the north to Yemenand Eritrea in the south; from Algeria in the west to Azerbaijan in the east; controlling much of southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa.
At the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states, some of which were later absorbed into the empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.[dn 3] With Constantinople as its capital and vast control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for over six centuries.
After the international recognition of the new Turkish parliament headquartered in Ankara, by means of the Treaty of Lausanne signed on 24 July 1923, the Turkish parliament proclaimed on 29 October 1923 the establishment of the Republic of Turkey as the continuing state of the defunct Ottoman Empire, in line with the treaty.[dn 4] The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924; the Caliphate‘s authority and properties were transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
In Ottoman Turkish the Empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه), or alternatively Osmanlı Devleti (عثمانلى دولتى).[dn 5] In Modern Turkish it is known as Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu. In older English usage, mostly the 19th century and earlier, it was usually referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey. In western accounts, the two names “Ottoman” and “Turkey” – were used interchangeably in relation to the Turkish state during the age of the Empire. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23 when the Ankara-based Turkish regime favoured Turkey as a sole official name, which had been one of the European names of the state since Seljuqtimes.
Science and technology
The Ottomans managed to build a very large collection of libraries. Sultan Mehmet II ordered Georgios Amirutzes, a Greek scholar from Trabzon, to translate and make available to Ottoman educational institutions the geography book of Ptolemy. One of the oldest sources on the history and philosophy of Christianity was also developed for the palace school: the İ’tikad nâme, a work on Christian beliefs by Patriarch Gennadious. Another example is mathematician Ali Qushji from Samarkand, who wrote twelve volumes on mathematics.
Ali Kuşçu (1403–1474) found empirical evidence for the Earth’s rotation through his observation on comets and concluded, on the basis of empiricism rather than speculative philosophy, that the moving Earth theory is just as likely to be true as the stationary Earth theory.
Kuşçu also improved on Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī‘s planetary model and presented an alternative planetary model for Mercury.
Taqi al-Din later built the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din in 1577, where he carried out astronomical observations until 1580. He calculated the eccentricity of the Sun’s orbit and the annual motion of the apogee.
In 1660 the Ottoman scholar Ibrahim Efendi al-Zigetvari Tezkireci translated Noël Duret‘s French astronomical work (written in 1637) into Arabic.
Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was the author of the first surgical atlas and the last major medical encyclopedia from the Islamic world. Though his work was largely based on Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi‘sAl-Tasrif, Sabuncuoğlu introduced many innovations of his own. Female surgeons were also illustrated for the first time.
An example of a watch which measured time in minutes was created by an Ottoman watchmaker, Meshur Sheyh Dede, in 1702.